Шкільні твори з англійської мови

Besides these major directors, a veritable army of skilled journeymen were trained to handle everyday directorial assignments. The studios supervised the careers of not only their actors, but also their directors, cinematogra-phers, and other key creative personnel, acting as a sort of finishing school for talent in support of the system. Directors often advanced to their positions from the cutting room, where they learned how to put a film together from the “coverage,” or footage that had been shot for each film they were assigned to edit. Such directors included William A. Wellman, known as “Wild Bill” for his rough manner and habit of carrying a gun on the sets to emphasize his authority; he created hard-hitting gangster films such as The Public Enemy (1931), which made a star of James Cagney. Indeed, for one of the key sequences in the film, Wellman insisted that real machine-gun bullets be used to blast away a section of a brick wall, just moments after Cagney had ducked behind it. Wellman also directed a variety of other films, including A Star Is Born, examining the vagaries of Hollywood, and the biting comedy Nothing Sacred (both 1937).

George Cukor was known in the trade as a “woman’s director” because of his skill in directing such stars as Katharine Hepburn, but his credits range over a wide variety of genres. A Bill of Divorcement (1932) was Hepburn’s screen debut, as the daughter of a man who has been committed to an insane asylum for many years and then returns home to find that his wife has left him for another man. Dinner at Eight (1933) is, along with Edmund Goulding’s Grand Hotel (1932), the definitive all-star film, a shrewd combination of comedy and drama centering on the lives of a group of ambitious Manhattan socialites.

Frank Capra followed up the success of 1934’s It Happened One Night with a string of sentimental films about small-town American values, which the director himself dubbed “Capra corn.” Lost Horizon (1937), an atypical trip to exotica for the director, was a critical and financial disappointment, but in such films as You Can’t Take It with You (1938), Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), Meet John Doe (1941), and his now classic It’s a Wonderful Life (1946), Capra extolled the virtues of the common

Orson Welles began in the theater as a “boy wonder,” then drifted into radio dramas in New York in the 1930s by playing “The Shadow” and other popular characters. It was then that he founded the Mercury Theatre Company, which produced plays on Broadway and on the radio with scandalous success. His 30 October 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells’s War of the Worlds was his ticket to international fame, or infamy; designed as a breaking news story, Welles’s production convinced millions of listeners that Martians were invading the earth, landing en masse in Grover’s Mill, New Jersey. There was immediate, widespread panic: churches were jammed with terrified citizens as people prayed for deliverance from the alien onslaught. The second half of the hour-long broadcast made it clear that the entire story was, indeed, fiction, but Welles’s brilliant use of the medium had so unnerved the nation that he was summarily forced to apologize for the riots he had caused.

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If Lubitsch saw the relationship between men and women as a playful battle of wits and whims, Max Ophüls was perhaps the supreme romanticist of the movies, both in his early work in Germany and his later work in the United States. Ophüls did not make a great many films, but his work is marked by a deeply suffused sense of Old World romance and lost splendor. His most famous American film is Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948), starring Joan Fontaine and Louis Jourdan in the tale of a young woman who is seduced and abandoned by a brilliant young concert pianist and finds herself alone and pregnant.