The United Kingdom


The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north-west and the North Sea on the east. The U. K. includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. I Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom has an area of 244,000 square kilometres (94,249 square miles). The capital of the country is London.

English is the official language. The population of the U. K. is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3 million – in Wales. A little over 5 million – in Scotland. About 1.5 million – in Northern Ireland. London`s population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom. The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350 kilometres long. There are many universities, colleges libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University. The U. K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.

The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom i one of the world`s most industrialize" countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin. Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables oats.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consist of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244000 square kilometers, it takes the 75th place among other countries in the world. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the North Sea, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. It is mild the whole year round. The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western parts of the country is mountainous and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and center) is vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The highest region are in Scotland and in the North Wales. The highest peak in Scotland is Ben Nevis, 1343 m. In Wales the highest peak is Snowdon. There is also the Pennine chain in North England with some wild mountains for climbing. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn, the Thames, the Trent. The Thames flowing to the East is the busiest and the most beautiful river, the Severn flowing to the west is the longest river – about 200 miles, the Trent flowing to the north is the fastest. The are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country. Here is Lake District which consists of 16 lakes or "lochs" as they call them. The largest lake is Windermere and the deepest one is Westwater.

The commonest trees in England are oak, ash and beech. Scotland has much pine and birch. The animal life is varies. There are several small lizards, snakes and frogs. The most numerous birds are blackbirds, sparrows and starling. Some birds are protected by law. They are partridges and pheasants. The national emblem of England is the Red Rose, the national bird is the Robin Redbreast. The national emblem of Wales is the daffodil and leek. The national emblem of Scotland is the thistle. The national emblem of Northern Ireland is the shamrock. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world`s largest products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. Seven per cent of the population is engaged in farming. The population is more then 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Belfast, Sheffield, Leeds, Nottingham, Liverpool, Bristle, Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow. The largest ports of the country are: Belfast, London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Cardiff. The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. It has a monarch – a King or a Queen. The present British monarch is Queen Elizabeth the Second. She become Queen in 1952. The monarch has little power and can reign with the support of Parliament. British Parliament is the legislative body at the country. It consists of two Houses. The House of Commons and House of Lords. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the Government of the country. In reality, the House of Commons has truth power. It introduces new bills. Then they go to the House of Lords for approval. Then the monarch since them. The functions of the Queen are: to open the sessions of the Parliament, to head the commonwealth, to be Commander-in-Chief, to declare the war, to make peace. The house of commons is made up of 650 elected knows of members of parliament.

The party which has the majority of suits in the Government and its leader usually becomes prime minister. The prime minister forms his or her Cabinet Ministers. The chairman of the House of Commons is the Speaker. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor. He sits on a special place, which is called the woolsack. It means that wool made England rich. The members of the House of Lords are not elected, there are live peers. There are several political parties in Great Britain. They are the Conservative, the Liberal, the Labor, the Social Democratic and the Communist parties. Prime minister of the country Antony Blair is representative of the Labor party.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with an area of some 244.000 square miles is situated on the British Isles which are separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Strait of Dover and the English Channel. Britain`s population is over 57 million. For out of every five people live in towns. The UK is a constitutional monarchy: the head of the state is a king or a queen. In practice, the Sovereign reins, but doesn`t rule: the UK is governed by the Government – a body of Ministers who are the leading members of the political party in power and who are responsible to Parliament. The present Sovereign is Queen Elisabeth 11. The territory of Great Britain is small. Yet the country has a wide variety of scenery. England is the heart of Britain. It is the richest, the most fertile and most populated in the country. The north and the west of the England are mountainous, but all the rest territory is a vast plain. In Northwest England, there are many beautiful lakes with green, wooded or grassy shores and gray mountains all around. It is called Lake District.

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