The United Kingdom


The national symbol of England is the red rose. Wales is the smallest land of the UK, but has a considerable variety, from the picturesque mountains of the north [including Snowdoina] to the mining and industrial areas of the south The capital of Wales is Cardiff, an important industrial centre and port. Most people in Wales live in the coastal plains. The national symbol of Wales is a leek or daffodil. Scotland is a land of mountains, narrow valleys and plains, famous lakes and no end of large and small islands off the coast. The Highlands of Scotland are among oldest mountains in the world. The highest of them is Ben Nevis. The lakes in Scotland are called "locks". The beautiful Lock Lomond with its thirty islands is the largest. One-third of the people in Scotland live in or near its capital, Edinburg, and its great industrial center, Glasgow. The national symbol of Scotland a thistle. Northern Ireland was a part of Ireland as a whole before the early 20th century and developed in the middle ages as the Kingdom of Ulster, later the Province of Ulster. The territory is small. It is a land of lakes, rivers and a varied sea coast. Some places are known for their wild beauty, the Glen of Antrim among of them. The capital city is Belfast. The capital of Great Britain, London, stands on the Thames which flows into the North Sea.

The Thames is the busiest and the most important river in Great Britain, but it is not very long. The Severn Which flows into the Irish Sea is the longest British river. The climate of Great Britain is mild. The Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf-stream affect the weather of the British Isles. The summer are usually cool and rainy. There is much rain and fog in autumn and in winter. Great Britain is a very damp country.

The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of north-western Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland – the home of the deer and the eagle. The Pennine Range in northern England and the Cambrian Mountains in Wales are much lower. In the extreme south of England are the famous chalk hills, some of which form the Dover Cliffs. The southern and south-eastern parts of the island lie in varied lowlands. The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways. The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain`s principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, Glasgow. They have splendid harbours, for the coast line is very indented. Owing to the shape of the country, any point in Great Britain is no more than 70 miles from the sea. Naturally, it`s made the English race a sea – loving one. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. The winters are not severely cold, while summers are rarely hot. The British Isles are well – watered throughout the year. The cloudiness is rather dense, well over half the days of the year are overcast – fogs along the coast frequently hide the sun. The fogs of London, often made severe by mixture with city smoke have a world – wide reputation, but the one not to be envied. Rivers in Great Britain are seldom frozen and generally ice-free. The grass remains green all the year round. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.

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